Part I Complete Listing | Part II Complete Listing | Time Line | Locations | Contributing Experts
Unfinished Nation Home
 

Part II

Reconstruction to the Information Age
(from 1865 to Present)

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Episode 35: "The Road to War
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Episodes Covered in The Unfinished Nation

Episode 27:  The Meeting Ground

The American West—a place of convergence. Contrasting experiences of Native American tribes; Spanish-speaking communities of Mexican Americans in New Mexico, Texas, and California; Chinese immigrants, and African Americans. The impact of the Homestead Act and the experiences of native cultures.

Original writings from:

“Geronimo’s Story of His Life”
”Petition of Antonio Pico and 49 other Petitioners to the Senate and
House of Representatives, February 21, 1859”
”Comments of Juan Antonio Sanchez”
”As a Chinaman Saw Us:  Passages from his Letters to Friends at Home” (1904)
”The Homestead Act, May 20, 1862”
”Daniel Freeman’s Application to Homestead Land Office, Brownville,
Nebraska Territory, January 1, 1868
”Proof of Improvements Submitted to Land Office”

Contributing experts:

Elliott West, University of Arkansas
Stephen Aron, University of California—Los Angeles
Richard White, Stanford University
Cliff Trafzer , University of California—Riverside
Carlos CortÚs, University of California—Riverside
Akira Iriye, Harvard University
Franklin Odo, Curator, Smithsonian Institution
Darrell Y. Hammamoto, University of California—Davis
Matthew Frye Jacobson, Yale University
Alfred Moss, University of Maryland

Episode 28:  The Legendary Frontier

Economic development of the West. Impact of mining, cattle ranching and farming.  Allure of the West;  reality of lingering images and myths. Clashes with Native-American tribes; U. S. government’s dispersal policy. Rise and decline of traditional agriculture. Introduction of commercial farming techniques.

Contributing experts:

Elliott West, University of Arkansas
Stephen Aron, University of California—Los Angeles
Richard White, Stanford University
Cliff Trafzer , University of California—Riverside
Steven Brian Stoll, Yale University

Episode 29:  A New Corporate Order

Explosion of U. S. industry after Civil War, and factors which motivate unprecedented growth. Power and wealth amassed by corporate magnates. Recruitment of labor force. Women and children in the workforce. Workers attempts to organize for better wages and working conditions. Measures used to stifle worker discontent.

Contributing experts:

Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
Christopher Clark, University of Warwick, England
Eric Rauchway, University of California—Davis
Stanley Katz, Princeton University
Matthew Frye Jacobson, Yale University
Marilyn Halter, Boston University
Alice Kessler-Harris, Columbia University
Becky Nicolaides, University of California—San Diego
Victor Silverman, Pomona College
Estelle Freedman, Stanford University
Elliott West, University of Arkansas
Kevin Boyle, Ohio State University
Franklin Odo, Smithsonian Institution
Dan Rodgers, Princeton University

Episode 30:  The Age of the City

Industrialization shifts economic power and population to cities.  Increase in immigration and ethnic neighborhoods; nativist reaction.  City planning and infrastructure; urban transportation. Housing for wealthy, middle class, poor families.  Threat of poverty, fire, disease. Growth of political machines, bossism. Consumerism.  New leisure pastimes.

Contributing experts:

Christopher Capozzola, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Eric Monkkonen, University of California—Los Angeles
Lawrence W. Levine, George Mason University
Alice Kessler-Harris, Columbia University
Bernard Bailyn, Harvard University
Estelle Freedman, Stanford University
Matthew Frye Jacobson, Yale University
Becky Nicolaides, University of California—San Diego
Kenneth Jackson, Columbia University
Joel Handler, University of California—Los Angeles
Stanley Katz, Princeton University
Marilyn Halter, Boston University
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado

Episode 31:  Political Stalemate

Equilibrium, party loyalty final decades of 19th century. Patronage and kickbacks system vs. need for skilled government officials. Presidential politics; election battles.  Significant regulatory legislation. Depression of 1893 and the emergence of the Populist Party.  Gold-silver controversy. 

Contributing experts:

Charles W. Calhoun, East Carolina University
Scott James, University of California—Los Angeles
Eric Rauchway, University of California—Davis
Frank Ninkovich, St. John’s University

Episode 32:  Imperial Ambition

Stirrings of imperialism. Arguments for and against joining the imperial race. American interest in the Caribbean; determination to maintain hegemonic power in hemisphere.  Spanish-American War and role of the press. “Glorious little war” in Cuba vs. experience in the Philippines. Territorial acquisitions.

Contributing experts:

Thomas J. Osborne, Santa Ana College
Frank Ninkovich, St. John’s University
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Akira Irive, Harvard University
Christopher Capozzola, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Robert Schulzinger, University of Colorado
Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Matthew Frye Jacobson, Yale University

Episode 33:  The Progressive Era

Causes and varieties of progressive reform efforts in late 19th and early 20th centuries. Settlement house movement. Women seeking professional status and the vote. Efforts to combat government corruption. African Americans and reform; the Temperance crusade and prohibition; immigration concerns. Socialist efforts; the Industrial Workers of the World. Attempts to regulate big business.

Contributing experts:

Christopher Capozolla, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Eric Rauchway, University of California—Davis
Scott James, University of California—Los Angeles
Alice Kessler-Harris—Columbia University
Estelle Freedman, Stanford University
Arthur Lupia, University of Michigan
James Lindsey, Brookings Institution
Mickey Edwards, Harvard University
Deborah G. White, Rutgers University
Lynn Dumenil, Occidental College
Robert Schulzinger, University of Colorado
Marilyn Halter, Boston University
Victor Silverman, Pomona College

Episode 34:  Warrior to Priest—Presidents of the Early 1900s

Theodore Roosevelt, the “accidental” president, in perspective. His relationship with the press, big business and reform efforts, conservation, his own political party. Contrast of Taft’s style and tenure in office. Progressive Roosevelt challenges both Taft and Wilson in 1912. Wilson solidifies presidential power, walks path between Progressive and Democratic ideals. Foreign policy highlights of the three administrations.  

Contributing experts:

Eric Rauchway, University of California--Davis
Dan Rodgers, Princeton University
Samuel Kernell, University of California—San Diego
Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Steven Brian Stoll, Yale University
Brian Balogh, University of Virginia
Michael Parish, University of California—San Diego
Tom Patterson, Harvard University
Brian J. Cook, Clark University
Scott James, University of California—Los Angeles
Thomas J. Osborne, Santa Ana College
Frank Ninkovich, St. John’s University
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado

Episode 35: The Road to War

Complex system of alliances/rivalries that leads Europe into armed conflict in 1914.  Initially, Wilson and U. S. walk neutrality tightrope. Election issues in 1916. Ties to Great Britain, and incidents on high seas lead U.S. into conflict in 1917. Creating a fighting force and economic/industrial support for war effort. Intolerance of divergent ideas on the home front.

Contributing experts:

Jennifer Keene, University of Redlands
Robert Schulzinger, University of Colorado
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
Frank Ninkovich, St. John’s University
Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Eric Rauchway, University of California—Davis
Christopher Capozzola, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Michael Frye Jacobson, Yale University
Alfred Moss, University of Maryland
Deborah G. White, Rutgers University
Richard White, Stanford University
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University

Episode 36:  To end All Wars?

Before U.S. troops arrive in Europe, Germany defeats Russia and moves toward Paris.  Labor unrest at home. Allies push German troops back to border; high casualties.  Wilson’s Fourteen Points. Short- and long-term fallout from Paris Peace talks. Turbulent times for country: racial and labor unrest, Red scare. 

Contributing experts:

Jennifer Keene, University of Redlands
Christopher Capozzola, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Robert Schulzinger, University of Colorado
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
Frank Ninkovich, St. John’s University
Akira Iriye, Harvard University
 
Eric Rauchway, University of California—Davis
Michael Parrish, University of California—San Diego
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Kent Greenawalt, Columbia University

Episode 37:  The 1920s…Beyond the Glitter

The culture of the 1920s. America’s  economy and the labor force. Prosperity and consumerism vs. abject poverty. Political and cultural conflict: immigration legislation and Prohibition. Harlem Renaissance, the Scopes trial.  The three conservative Republican presidents of the era: Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover. 

Contributing experts:

Christopher Capozzola, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Lynn Dumenil, Occidental College
Eric Rauchway, University of California—Davis
Michael Parrish, University of California—San Diego
Alfred Moss, University of Maryland
Deborah G. White, Rutgers University
Alice Kessler-Harris, Columbia University
Michael Bernstein, University of California—San Diego
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Marilyn Halter, Boston University
Matthew Frye Jacobson, Yale University

Episode 38:  Hard Times

Events leading to the stock market crash and Great Depression. How the Depression affects various population segments. Unemployment and relief efforts. Herbert Hoover’s attempts to alleviate the Depression. Election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

Contributing Experts: 

Michael Parrish, University of California—San Diego
Michael Bernstein, University of California—San Diego
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Victor Silverman, Pomona College
Steven Stoll, Yale University
Alfred Moss, University of Maryland
Stephan Thernstrom, Harvard University
Stephen Pitti, Yale University
Darrell Y. Hamamoto, University of California—Davis
Alice Kessler-Harris, Columbia University
Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Robert Dawidoff, Claremont Graduate University

Episode 39:  “A Chaos of Experimentation”

The presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. New Deal legislation. Agencies created in response to crises. Changes to programs resulting from criticism of New Deal. The effect of policies on various groups, including women and minorities.

Contributing Experts:

Michael Bernstein, University of California—San Diego
Michael Parrish, University of California—San Diego
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Lawrence W. Levine, George Mason University
David Gergen, editor, commentator
Samuel Beer, Harvard University
Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Fitzhugh Brundage, University of North Carolina
Victor Silverman, Pomona College
Alfred Moss, University of Maryland
Kevin Boyle, Ohio State University
Gwendolyn Mink, Smith College

Episode 40:  Between the Wars

American policies of neutrality, isolationism, and internationalism in decades after World War I. Depression and the world order. Rise of totalitarian regimes in Europe and Asia; their expansionist ambitions. American response to war in Europe.  Japanese attack Pearl Harbor.

Contributing Experts:

Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
Robert Schulzinger, University of Colorado
Akira Iriye, Harvard University
Keith Olson, University of Maryland
Michael Parrish, University of Colorado—San Diego
Frank Ninkovich, St. John’s University
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Jennifer Keene, University of Redlands
Allan M. Winkler, Miami University
Thomas Unger, Pearl Harbor witness
Herb Weatherwax, Pearl Harbor witness
Franklin Odo, Smithsonian Institution

Episode 41:  A Nation at War

American mobilizes for World War II. Strategies employed on both the Pacific and European fronts. U. S. becomes arsenal of allies; residual effects of economic boom.  War and the American people: Blacks, Latinos, Native-Americans. Internment of Japanese Americans.

Contributing Experts:

Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Robert Schulzinger,  University of Colorado
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
Keith Olson, University of Maryland
Allan M. Winkler, Miami University
Kathryn Olmsted, University of California—Davis
Michael Bernstein, University of California—San Diego
Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Richard White, Stanford University
Victor Silverman, Pomona College
Kevin Boyle, Ohio State University
Deborah G. White, Rutgers University
Alfred Moss, University of Maryland
Fitzhugh Brundage, University of North Carolina
Clifford Trafzer, University of California—Riverside
Stephen Pitti, Yale University
Alice Kessler-Harris, Columbia University
Franklin Odo, Smithsonian Institution
Darrell Y. Hamamoto, University of California—Davis
P. Scott Corbett, Oxnard College

Episode 42:  Taking the Offensive

Roosevelt runs for fourth term; survives only a few months in office. An unprepared vice president—Harry Truman—takes office. The liberation of Europe and defeat of Germany. The Pacific offensive. The Manhattan Project, dropping of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; lingering debates over its use. 

Contributing Experts:

James Gilbert, University of Maryland
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
Keith Olson, University of Maryland
Robert Schulzinger, University of Colorado
Akira Iriye, Harvard University
P. Scott Corbett, Oxnard College
Allan M. Winkler, Miami University
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University

Episode 43:  The Collapse of Peace

The aftermath of World War II and the origins of the Cold War. Soviet-American tensions during WWI and Yalta Conference. Truman succeeds Roosevelt as president.  Failure of Potsdam and China problems. The Containment Doctrine; the Marshall Plan.  Mobilization at home and creation of NATO. American society and politics after the War.

Contributing Experts:

Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Philip Zelikow, University of Virginia
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Kathryn Olmsted, University of California—Davis
Allan M. Winkler, Miami University
Robert Shulzinger, University of Colorado
Keith Olson, University of Maryland
Michael Parrish, University of California—San Diego
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
James Gilbert, University of Maryland
Christian Ostermann, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
James Lindsay, Council on Foreign Relations
Franklin Odo, Smithsonian Institution
Dan Rodgers, Princeton University
Michael Bernstein, University of California—San Diego
Jennifer Keene, University of Redlands
Stephan Thernstrom, Harvard University
Kevin Boyle, Ohio State University

Episode 44:  Fallout

Election of 1948. Fair Deal revised. The Korean War. The crusade against subversion:  Alger Hiss, the Rosenberg Case, McCarthyism.

Contributing Experts:

Kent B. Germany, University of Virginia
Fitzhugh Brundage, University of North Carolina
Keith Olson, University of Maryland
Robert Schulzinger, University of Colorado
Kevin Boyle, Ohio State University
Allan M. Winkler, Miami University
James Gilbert, University of Maryland
Brian Balogh, University of Virginia
Kathryn Olmsted, University of California—Davis
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Lynn Dumenil, Occidental College
Michael Parrish, University of California—San Diego
Stanley Katz, Princeton University

Episode 45:  The Way We Were?

Sources of economic growth:  government spending, suburban development, rise of the West. Capital, labor, and the new economies. Expansion of science and technology. The consuming nation. The family—changing roles and expectations.

Contributing Experts:

Michael Bernstein, University of California—San Diego
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
Lynn Dumenil, Occidental College
Richard White, Stanford University
Kevin Boyle, Ohio State University
Brian Balogh, University of Virginia
Allan M. Winkler, Miami University
Fitzhugh Brundage, University of North Carolina
James Gilbert, University of Maryland
Lawrence W. Levine, George Mason University
Kenneth Jackson, Columbia University
Becky Nickolaides, University of California—San Diego
Eric Monkkonen, University of California—Los Angeles
Elliott West, University of Arkansas

Episode 46:  The Other America

People on the margins: rural and inner city poverty. Civil Rights movement: Brown v. Board of Education, expansion of the movement. Eisenhower’s Republicanism: the welfare state, the decline of McCarthyism, and the Cold War continued.

Contributing Experts:

Stephan Thernstrom, Harvard University
J. Morgan Kousser, California Institute of Technology
Paula McClain, Duke University
Michael Perry, Emory University
Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Kent B. Germany, University of Virginia
Deborah G. White, Rutgers University
Fitzhugh Brundage, University of North Carolina
Matthew Frye Jacobson, Yale University
James Gilbert, University of Maryland
Kiron Skinner, Carnegie Mellon University
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
Brian Balogh, University of Virginia
Timothy Conlan, George Mason University
Michael Bernstein, University of California—San Diego
Michael Parrish, University of California—San Diego
Christian Ostermann, Woodrow Wilson International Center
Frank Ninkovich, St. Johns University
Robert Schulzinger, Colorado University
Kathryn Olmsted, University of California—Davis
Robert Brigham, Vassar College
Keith Olson, University of Maryland

Episode 47:  Restless Society

Election of 1960. Kennedy’s thousand days in office; his assassination. Johnson’s succession: assault on poverty, Great Society. Battle for racial equality: expanding protests, urban violence, black power.

Contributing Experts:

Bruce Schulman, Boston University
Kent B. Germany, University of Virginia
James Gilbert, University of Maryland
Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Brian Balogh, University of Virginia
Gwendolyn Mink, Smith College
R. Shep Melnick, Boston College
Joel Handler, University of California—Los Angeles
William Julius Wilson, Harvard University
Eric Monkkonen, University of California—Los Angeles
Stephan Thernstrom, Harvard University
Marilyn Halter, Boston University
Brian Baloh, University of Virginia
Fitzhugh Brundage, University of North Carolina
J. Morgan Kousser, California Institute of Technology
Paula McClain, Duke University
Lani Guinier, Harvard University
Becky Nicklaides, University of California—San Diego

Episode 48:  A Nation Torn

Diversifying foreign policy. Confrontations with the Soviet Union. The agony of Viet Nam. The traumas of 1968: the Tet offensive, King and Kennedy assassinations, political turmoil. 

Contributing Experts

Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
Robert Brigham, Vassar College
Robert Schulzinger, University of Colorado
Graham Allison, Harvard University
Philip Zelikow, University of Virginia
James Lindsay, Council on Foreign Relations
Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Marvin Kalb, Harvard University
James Gilbert, University of Maryland
Michael Bernstein, University of California—San Diego
Bruce Schulman, Boston University
Brian Balogh, University of Virginia

Episode 49:  Determined to be Heard

Patterns of social and cultural protests in the 1960s and 1970s: the New Left, countercultures. The mobilization of minorities: Native American fight for civil rights, Latino activism, gay liberation. The new feminism. Environmental efforts.

Contributing Experts:

Brian Balogh, University of Virginia
P. Scott Corbett, Oxnard College
Karen Paget, author, “In the Name of Freedom”
Brian Schulman, Boston University
James Gilbert, University of Maryland
Richard White, Stanford University
Paula McClain, Duke University
Clifford Trafzer, University of California—Riverside
Stephen Pitti, Yale University
Carlos Cortez, University of California—Riverside
Franklin Odo, Smithsonian Institution
Gary Gerstle, University of Maryland
Allan M. Winkler, Miami University
Joshua Golden, University of California—Los Angeles
Estelle Freedman, Stanford University
Gwendolyn Mink, Smith College
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Paul Erhlich, Stanford University
Lois Gibbs, environmental activist

Episode 50:  Crisis of Authority

Nixon, Kissinger, and the escalation of the Vietnam War. Multi-polar approach to maintaining stable relationships among major powers. Nixon Doctrine and Third World countries. Domestic policies: dismantling the Great Society, changes in the Supreme Court, troubled economy, problems with OPEC. Watergate crisis; Nixon’s resignation.

Contributing Experts:

Robert Schulzinger, University of Colorado
Robert Brigham, Vassar College
P. Scott Corbett, Oxnard College
Bruce Schulman, Boston University
Marvin Kalb, Harvard University
Kiron Skinner, Carnegie Mellon University
Victor Silverman, Pomona College
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
Timothy Conlan, George Mason University
Edward Lazarus, University of California—Los Angeles
Kathryn Olmsted, University of California—Davis
Brian Balogh, University of Virginia
David Gergen, Harvard University
Samuel Beer, Harvard University
Tom Patterson, Harvard University

Episode 51:  Right Turn

Politics and diplomacy after Watergate. The Ford custodianship. The trials of Jimmy Carter.  Iranian hostage crisis. The rise of the new American right: the Sunbelt and its politics, religious revivalism, tax revolt. The campaign of 1980. The “Reagan revolution: “supply-side” economics, fiscal crisis, international relations, election of 1984. Waning of the Cold War. The Bush presidency; the Gulf War.  

Contributing Experts:

Robert Shulzinger, University of Colorado
James Baker, former Chief of Staff, Secretary of State/Treasury
Kathryn Olmsted, University of California—Davis
Kiron Skinner, Carnegie-Mellon University
Mickey Edwards, Harvard University
Gary Jacobson, University of California—San Diego
Bruce Schulman, Boston University
Brian Balogh, University of Virginia
Barbara Sinclair, University of California—Los Angeles
David King, Harvard University
David Gergen, Harvard University
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
Kevin Boyle, Ohio State University
Timothy Conlan, George Mason University
Allan M. Winkler, Miami University—Ohio
Graham Allison, Harvard University
Robert Y. Shapiro, Columbia University
Philip Zelikow, University of Virginia

Episode 52:  World of Uncertainty

Launching the Clinton presidency; the Republican resurgence. Election of 1996.  Clinton, triumphant and embattled; impeachment and acquittal.  Contested election of 2000. Economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s, downturn in 2000s. Globalization and its perils. America’s changing and more diverse society. The world scene. A new era?. 

Contributing Experts:

William Domhoff, University of California—Santa Cruz
Tom Zeiler, University of Colorado
John Cavanagh, Director, Institute for Policy Studies
Denise Froning, Heritage Foundation
Timothy Conlan, George Mason University
David Gergen, Harvard University
Gary Jacobson, University of California—San Diego
Gwendolyn Mink, Smith College
William Julius Wilson, Harvard University
Mike McCurry, press secretary to President Clinton, 1995-1998
Samuel Beer, Harvard University
James A. Baker III, Secretary of State, 1989-1992
Gerald Hanweck, George Mason University
Alan Brinkley, Columbia University
Kevin Boyle, Ohio State University
Joel Handler, University of California—Los Angeles
Bruce Schulman, Boston University
Jeffrey Birnbaum, Washington Bureau Chief, Fortune Magazine
Estelle Freedman, Stanford University
Marilyn Halter, Boston University
Carlos Cortez, University of California—Riverside
Stephen Pitti, Yale University
Allan M. Winkler, Miami University
Frank Ninkovich, St. John’s University
James Lindsay, Council on Foreign Relations
Philip Zelikow, University of Virginia

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